Sarandi, H. (2016), Oral Corrective Feedback: A Question of Classification and Application. TESOL Quarterly, 50: 235–246.
Sarandhi argues that oral corrective feedback (CF) research in both classroom and laboratory settings presents CF in binary terms along an explicit-implicit (and input-output) continuum even though their classifications can actually change based on numerous factors. For example, recasts, which are typically considered implicit CF, can actually be explicit when the correction is salient to the learners. This would be in situations where the recast is short and involves a single change, where recasts use word stress to highlight the error, if learners have prior knowledge of the structure, and if they are generally capable to notice and correct the error. Sarandi’s point is that researchers need to understand that the nature of CF changes based on classroom application. Furthermore, while most CF research points to explicit CF being more effective, this does not account for implicit CF transformed into explicit CF through classroom application and the interaction of multiple variables.