Five Times a Week

In some way or another, all teachers, instructors, and professors care about their students. We care about their progress in our class, in other classes, their goals, their futures, their lives (but not their excuses!). We establish rapport, classroom communities, safe spaces. We are more than just knowledge distributors – we are advisers, counselors, and friends – even if we don’t want to be.

Teacher-student rapport is one thing I thought I had nailed – checked off my list, so to speak. Something I was good at and knew about. However, recently I realized that the rapport I thought I had in the past is nothing compared to the interrelationships I have built up over the last semester.

When I was a middle school teacher in Korea, I saw my students once a week. Let me clarify this. I saw 500 students in 20 different classes once a week. If I/they were lucky, I saw them in the halls, so maybe twice a week. I had a special afterschool class and saw those students one more time. When I was in Japan, it was the same situation, except that I worked with a small group of students everyday after school on a drama competition.

When I taught undergraduate classes in Korea, I saw my students twice a week. Sometimes three times if they were brave enough to come into my office to ask for help. Some students took several of my courses and I saw them four times a week. My graduate students I only saw once a week.

Coming to a university intensive English program in the States, I see my students five times a week. Sometimes I see them around campus or at events – six times a week, maybe.

Once a week. Twice a week. Five times a week. These small numbers represent some pretty drastic differences. I didn’t realize the power of these differences until last Friday when a group of Japanese students returned home to Japan and a group of Brazilian students matriculated into the general university student population. It was sad. Very sad. And I wondered why. I had left students before, and it was always sad, but this was different. And then I realized it was because I had seen these students almost more than my own friends and family. I had learned their likes and dislikes, their stories, their jokes. I had seen them progress and change more clearly than any of my other students in the past.

This realization was profound for me because I never knew that one could connect with their students on this kind of level. My past experiences of rapport, affinity, comradery – whatever you want to call it – while, authentic and sincere, was nonetheless a watered down version of what I experience in only a single semester (in fact, two different terms of classes).

What’s the point of this? You can’t change how often you see your students. Truth be told, there are probably some students you don’t want to see five times a week. However, for the majority, the longer you spend with your students, the stronger the rapport, the stronger the connections, the stronger the classroom, and, I think, the stronger the learning.



Research Bites: The Mother of all Corrective Feedback Studies


Li, S. (2010). The effectiveness of corrective feedback in SLA: A meta-analysis. Language Learning (60)2, 309-365. [$link]

Twitter Summary

Study of corrective feedback: effective for SLA; explicit for short term; implicit (recasts) for long  


As a former grammar Nazi language prescriptivist, I have become a bit leery about correcting people, especially students. For the general public, my mother excluded, I tend to ignore errors in speech or otherwise embrace them as a linguistic peek inside the backgrounds, experiences, and heads of my interlocutors. For non-native speakers, I have always been careful about when and where to correct. The classic accuracy/fluency dichotomy in which one corrects during accuracy-based activities only and lets anything flow during fluency-based activities has been about the only training and advice I received on giving oral corrective feedback (written feedback is a whole separate thing). Like most dichotomies, things are not always black and white: students not only need correction at many points other than focus-on-form(s) activities, but they also want it. Continue reading

Student Podcasts (Fall II, 2014)

For my advanced listening class this term, we used the Q: Skills for Success series of books. The level 5 listening book contained a number of radio interviews and podcast-like audio texts. I decided to use this format (which the students were familiar listening to) to structure their final project.

Students worked in groups, chose a topic they were interested in, and followed a lose format that included an introduction (discussing related news), a central discussion focused around an authentic media clip, discussion of interviews conducted with non-ELL students on campus, and a closing.

Some of the requirements include using only notes (and therefore not reading but actually having a discussion), using certain phrases and vocabulary, and holding discussions at an academic level (i.e. beyond personal experience).

This is the first time I had done podcasts, and while I liked it, I think it was too much work for the students in terms of editing and finding times to meet. That being said, having a recorded natural discussion allows for a great level of feedback on grammar, speaking skills, and pronunciation.

Please enjoy my students’ podcasts!

Error Diaries: Correct Me or Correct Me Not?

A few months ago, Kate Makaryeva described the rationale and implementation of using error diaries with her learners. I read her post with great interest, knowing that error correction is extremely important yet something I don’t do nearly as much as I want to. Her idea stuck around in my head, and I was thrilled that she wrote some follow-up Q&A posts (1, 2) about error diaries. I learned a lot from her posts and decided to find a way to try them myself. Continue reading

Great Websites for Listening Material

Due to my own difficulties with it, listening has become the latest field of TESOL I am most interested in. It is my favorite class to teach and I tend to read more articles related to listening, teaching listening, and pronunciation than any other type. I just finished “Listening Myths” by Steven Brown and just gave a well-received presentation on intensive and extensive listening with listening journals. Needless to say, I am passionate about listening.

Teaching listening is by no means easy. Neither is finding something to listen to. When searching for a listening text, you have to consider many things. Any random video from YouTube just won’t work. Among the things you have to consider are:

  • level – is it at or slightly above your students present level?
  • topic – is it a topic that is interesting or they have the necessary background for?
  • speed – is it too fast or too slow?
  • accent – is it an accent you want students to be familiar with?
  • vocabulary – does it contain vocabulary they are likely to know or does it contain field-specific vocabulary they probably won’t know?
  • transcript – does it have a transcript that you can exploit?
  • length – is it too long or too short?
  • purpose – does the video need to serve a specific listening focus, such as containing lots of connected speech, or being an academic lecture conducive for note-taking practice?

So, with all these in mind, where can you find high-quality and useful listening material. Below, I offer some of my favorite websites from which to source listening. Can you add any more? Please leave a comment!

Authentic Listening Sources

  1. TED – interesting videos, subtitles, and transcripts.
  2. 5-Minute Lectures – University of Wisconsin-Madison short lecture series, no transcripts, unfortunatley.
  3. MIT OpenCourseWare - MIT lectures with video! Several even have transcripts and subtitles.
  4. RSA Animates – interesting lectures accompanied with really cool visual whiteboard art. Most have transcripts.
  5. Ignite – Short 5-minute lectures. No transcripts.
  6. Podbay - a site that links to hundreds of popular podcasts

ESL Listening Sources

  1. LyricsTraining – awesome music-based gap-fill game
  2. News in Levels – world news stories told in three levels of English
  3. BreakingNewsEnglish – world news stories told in several levels of English, at different speeds, and sometimes with different accents
  4. FluentU – Short videos with interactive subtitles (they include picture vocab), transcripts, and vocab exercises
  5. EnglishCentral – Short videos with listening, vocabulary, and speaking exercises.
  6. ESL Podcasts – This is an actually an article linking to 12 different ESL podcasts. My students prefer ESL podcasts to authentic ones, for what are probably obvious reasons.

YouTube Channels and Videos

  1. PBS Idea Channel – very fast, but very interesting
  2. Conversations with my 2-Year Old - funny series of videos
  3. Celebrities Read Mean Tweets – A series of videos from Jimmy Kimmel that are hilarious
  4. 9 YouTube Channels for Learning English – article with links to ESL YouTube channels
  5. The Argument Clinic - great video to teach negation, argument, contrastive stress
  6. My Blackberry Is Not Working – great video for puns
  7. Weird Things All Couples Fight About - great video to practice listening and passive-aggressive complaining
  8. The World’s Toughest Job - a tearjerker that all students will enjoy

Finally, not for students, but a reminder about how difficult listening in a second language is:

Due Sunday, by Midnight

“Your paper is due Sunday, by midnight.”

You’ve probably heard this many times. You may have even said it to your students when assigning a paper or writing project. I’ve said it many times. It’s a pretty standard mantra when you work with assignments online. But, lately I’ve stopped saying it. I stopped doing this when I realized that “Sunday, by midnight” or really any time “at midnight” seems both random and insane.

The only good reason to assign a paper to be due at midnight is if you plan on grading them starting at 12:01. There are probably few teachers, instructors, or professors chomping at the bit, waiting for the exact moment the new day rolls round, just so they can indulge themselves in a midnight binge of student essays.

So, why do we assign them due at midnight? Even worse than midnight on Sunday would be Friday by midnight. That means I plan on dedicating my weekend to grading papers. Many people do this. I’ve done this. But no one enjoys it. So, why keep doing it?

Lately, I’ve made my assignments due by class time, during the week. Students seem to really appreciate this, especially if they have a class later in the day. This due date makes sense because it marks the same time that students would have handed in their papers in any other class. It also marks the transition from the old topic to the next topic.

I’m still not going to grade them the moment class ends, but they are turned in at a more reasonable time, one which the students prefer. I have them at a reasonable time and I can grade them at a non-ungodly hour, during the week. So, hopefully, no longer will I be burning the midnight oil grading papers or wasting away my weekends jack-hammering at a virtual stack of papers. Or at least, so I say. I don’t like to make students wait for my feedback, and every so often, I will be pushing into the double digit late hours. Still, my goal is to create a better work-life balance and make a better atmosphere of time for my students.


Intensive English: Speed up or slow down?

{Sorry about the lack of posting lately. Between two children, 20 hours of classes per week, buying a house, and squeezing in some reading, time for blogging has evaporated}

I’m sitting here with a 300 page textbook (Q: Skills for Success, Listening and Speaking, Level 5) wondering how I will use it for the next 8 weeks. This will be used for a five-days-a-week, 50-minute course I teach as part of the intensive English program I work in. And it has me wondering about the adjective “intensive”.

Am I the only one who thinks the word “intensive” is a contranym? (A contranym is a word whose meanings may be opposites. For example, “to cleave” means to stick together or to cut apart.) An intensive workout could be either a fast-paced circuit training workout or a really long run.

So, is an intensive English program supposed to cover a lot of material and skills in a short period of time, or is it supposed to involve intense focus on a singular skill in a short period of time? The former feels like you are spreading the language too thin, only touching on the surface and not really learning much. The latter feels like you are not learning enough – just mastering a little. As I now teach in an intensive English program, I am often torn between these two concepts: speeding up or slowing down.

This internal debate pops up often through the semester as I work out the students’ pace and needs. Usually, I lean towards slowing down. In fact, I’d say I am now partial to slow teaching.

According to Shelly Wright:

Fast is busy, controlling, aggressive, hurried, analytical, stressed, superficial, impatient, active, quantity-over-quality.

Slow is the opposite: calm, careful, receptive, still, intuitive, unhurried, patient, reflective, quality-over-quantity. It is about making real and meaningful connections with people — culture, work, food, everything.

A slow teaching movement (inspired by the slow food movement) has begun to take place. In slow teaching, things are not done “at a snail’s pace” – they are “done well and at the right speed.” It focuses on personalization (going slow means you have more time to connect with students), formative assessment (which allows for reteaching as well as judging proper speed), depth, creativity, exploration, collaboration, reflection.

This sounds absolutely wonderful, and aligns with all my teacher beliefs. I think TESOL needs a slow teaching manifesto like the one linked above (idea for a future blog post?). The problem comes when depth means focusing only on noun forms until students no longer make these errors. They come away with amazing plurals, but nothing else. Or focusing solely on exploiting one single listening text by focusing on comprehension, strategies, accent, inference, pronunciation, bottom-up, and top-down to the point where the course should have been called “CD Track 3″. Or completing four of the ten units in the book, knowing that the student will never use that book again, and that a forest of trees was likely felled for this set of books.

An alternative would be to dogme the course and make it completely focused on emergent language, but that’s not always practical. In fact, dogme is one of the reasons I have slowed down! That focus on emergent language really gets in the way of covering the material. I suppose that’s why dogme completely abandons material. However, that is not practical for me. You could make your own materials, but who has the time? I teach 21 hours a week, and need time for life outside of teaching. Flipping, e-books, paperless classrooms. There are lots of alternatives. I do a little of everything. But the books are still there, and there is material to be covered. No matter the methodology, program, or idea, we still have to consider fast and slow.

All this being considered, in the end, I stay (mostly) slow, but try to manage breadth with depth. I accept the fact that the Earth is taking another one for the team, and hope that by going slow students not only walk out of the classroom with an oversized paperweight but with a deeper knowledge and appreciation of English, their classmates, and their teacher.


Research Bites: Exploring Englishes with Listening Journals


Galloway, N., & Rose, H. (2014). Using listening journals to raise awareness of Global Englishes in ELT. ELT Journal.

Twitter Summary

Listening journals can be used to raise awareness about ELF #ResearchBites


This article is studded with acronyms to the point where it becomes difficult to read at times. Among the acronyms crammed into 10 pages of content are:

  • GE – Global English
  • WE – World Englishes – the identification of global varieties of English
  • ELF – English as a Lingua Franca – an approach to researching communication between non-native speakers; a possible pedagogical approach to teaching English
  • ELT – English Language teacher
  • NES – Native English Speaker
  • NNES – Non-native English Speaker
  • OC – Outer Circle (referring to the circles of English)
  • IC – Inner Circle
  • EC – Expanding circle


Because English is spoken by more non-native speakers than native speakers, and because  a large majority of the world’s English conversations take place between these native speakers, more and more teachers are researchers are beginning to challenge the native English speaker model of English. This model, the “yardstick” of most tests, textbooks, materials, and teaching, is seen as placing too much focus on a misrepresented model. Instead, more focus should be placed on embracing varieties of English, valuing multilingualism, and focusing on mutual intelligibility rather than perfect native speaker imitation.

The Study and Listening Journals

Students at a Japanese university listened to different sources of various Englishes once a week for a semester, and recorded their reflections about the listening. They found source material from websites, corpora, and invited speakers to the university. The reflections asked them to state why they chose their particular listening, and their general reactions to things like pronunciation, grammar, pragmatics, intelligibility, etc. It was the authors’ hope that student would focus on exploring the diversity of English and examining ELF interactions (how non-native speakers understood each other).

The Results

Students focused solely on the former, exploring different varieties of English. Students reflected on native speaker models (British, Australian, Canadian, Irish, etc.) as positive and had more negative comments about non-native models. Although, through repeated exposure, students began to accept non-native varieties. While failing to get students to analyze ELF interactions, the listening journals did force students to challenge their assumptions about who owns English, and what English really sounds like. According to the authors, “[t]he listening journal helped the students challenge preconceived stereotypes and exposure was proposed to aid future comprehension. The listening journals also highlighted students’ awareness of the use of ELF worldwide…” (p. 393).


Despite students’ knowledge that English is a global language, good English is still judged as sounding like a native-speaker. While it is unfortunate that, by believing this, students devalue their own Japanese English, it still makes sense. Native speakers, while no longer owning English, still are the main cultural drivers of English, and will therefore be perceived as models for a long time. Since students prefer native models, there is no sense to disbanding their preferences for what teachers and researchers feel is more fair (note: this is my own conclusion, not that of the authors; click here to read more about my opinions regarding ELF).

Still, I think that giving students more exposure to varieties of English is important, and listening journals seem to be a great way to do this. I am a big fan of listening journals for listening practice, and the number one complaint I have had from students is about listening to non-native speakers. I think repeated exposures is key, and it is something I will try to further integrate into my listening journals.

Likewise, I think the authors’ wishes to get students to focus on ELF interactions is commendable and seems to be a worthwhile endeavor to help students learn strategies for communication with English speakers from diverse backgrounds. The article gives a number of resources and references to ELF pedagogy and is therefore a worthwhile read.

You Win Some, You Lose Some: Lexical Notebooks vs Flashcards

If you read a recent post of mine about lexical notebooks, you could tell that I was keen on using them in the classroom. I had tried them previously in my university in South Korea with mixed but mostly positive results. Students seemed to appreciate them, found them useful, and did a generally good job keeping them.

Unfortunately, things did not work out the same here. Despite me explaining the benefits of lexical journals, they just didn’t take. Students either did not find them useful, did not really do them well, or just didn’t bother to do them. Some made minimal effort, while others did quite a good job. Like Korea, the results were mixed but mostly negative. I actually came away from the last lexical notebook collection (where I check their notebooks for a grade) a little jarred at the results. One student actually showed me a list of words and their translations and told me she preferred to study vocabulary that way. How can I argue with that? “Sorry, but research shows…” I don’t think so.

Lexical notebooks have been somewhat tainted for me now as I realize not every student finds value in them. If I were a student, would I want to use them? When I studied Polish and Korean, did I keep a lexical notebook? The honest answer is “no,” but this has more to do with not wanting to see my own handwriting than not wanting to write pronunciation notes, collocations, or word trees.

Despite the failure of lexical notebooks, I did manage success in my classroom with Quizlet flashcards. I did in fact use flashcards to study Korean, Polish, and GRE terminology – and I used them with success. I am consistently shocked that few, if any, of my students know about flaschards. Unlike lexical journals, there is really little to convince them of. They are easy to make, easy to use, and really effective. They are always with students (because they are on their smartphones), and, with Quizlet’s games, they are fun.

Each week, I make a set of English-English flashcards for my class on Quizlet. These contain the English word and a simple English definition taken from Learner’s Dictionary, along with the pronunciation of the word in IPA. I require my (low level) students to copy the flashcards to their account and add translations for the words, and save the cards as an English-YourLanguage set. This is weekly homework, and they are free to study both. I encourage them to use the different functions of Quizlet, such as the Learn, Spell, and Scatter functions. Sometimes I check my sets or my students’ sets just to see what they have been up to (in the free version, you can see who studied your sets or how students sets were studied). I can also tell which students use the flashcards and which students don’t: students who use the flashcards (1) are the more motivated students, (2) participate more in class, (3) perform better on vocabulary tests, and (4) perform better all around in my class. Whereas none of my students enjoy lexical notebooks, most of them enjoy flashcards.

The point here is you have to go with what students like, and…you shouldn’t endorse any method or technique you personally haven’t used to try and learn a language. Having said that, I do wish to play with lexical flashcards, which is something I kind of have used personally. I’ll save this for a later class, and a later blog post.